Technically Russia is not competing in the Olympics. Just its athletes.
There are 169 athletes competing in PyeongChang for the 2018 Winter Olympics under the Olympic flag and are identified as the Olympic Athletes from Russia (OAR).
The International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned Russia from participating in the games after a state-sponsored doping scheme was uncovered by investigations commissioned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. The scandal involved covering up and switching positive doping tests during the Olympics in Sochi and Rio. The meddling of tests is believed to have occurred from 2011-15, according to the investigation.
Russia has denied it operated the scheme.
The IOC allowed Russian athletes to compete in PyeongChang if they could prove their anti-doping history. However, they would have to do it under the Olympic flag. The Russian flag is not allowed to be displayed, so their uniforms are a dreary gray color with the initials OAR on them.
The IOC sanctioned, banned and stripped medals from dozens of Russian athletes. However, many appealed. There were 28 Russian athletes whose sanctions were lifted, and 11 Russian athletes had their lifetime ban lifted while their previous disqualifications were upheld.
Some Russian athletes did not know whether or not they would get to compete in the Olympics until hours before the Opening Ceremony. On Friday, the Court of Arbitration handed down its ruling on 45 Russian athletes, keeping them from competing in this February's games. Two coaches were also banned.
The IOC invited 169 athletes to compete under the OAR with one reportedly declining to participate. In Sochi, Russia had 232 athletes compete in the games and 177 in Vancouver.